عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the rules that has been spoken and used in various jurisprudential classifications such as jurisdiction, testimony, contract, trust, power of attorney, etc. is the rule of estimân which is mostly appeared in the phrase "Trustee should only swear". Despite the fame of this rule and its wide application in jurisprudence and law, there are many disputes about it. The disagreement that arises from the ambiguity in the relation between permission, trust and liability sometimes extends to the point where its regularity is compromised. Estimân has been considered by some as an exception to the rule of zemân 'ala-l-yad, not an independent jurisprudential rule. Whether it is a rule or an exception to the jurisprudential rule is not a theoretical discussion, but it has many practical implications. This study seeks to answer the question as to what is the relationship between permission, estimân and zemân 'ala-l-yad? A descriptive-analytical study reveals that estimân is an independent jurisprudential rule with its specific rulings and effects in which permission is an inherent theme.